Kubernetes

Kubernetes is used to manage the docker containers.

Kubernetes logo

Both Altinn Studio and Altinn Studio Apps consists of many different applications running in docker containers. For the Altinn Studio Apps solution this could possible over time be many thousands containers running different end user apps.

Kubernetes is used to manage the containers.

Kubernetes definitions

Pods

Pods are the building blocks of kubernetes. They will crash, be deleted and started up again. But they will never be restored. After they either crash or get deleted, they will ble replaced with a new pod, with it’s own configuration of IP adresses.

Deployments

Deployments are controllers for pods, they declare different properties a pod should have, and how many replicas of the pod should be running.
Properties a pod can have is:

  • Environment variables and values
  • Image and image-tag
  • What names the pods should have (they will inherrit the name from the deployment and then a ID that makes the unique)
  • Volume mounts, if they are from secrets or persistent volume claims

Secrets

A secret is one or more key-value pairs that is stored on in the cluster and can be access from within the cluster.
Secrets are base64 encrypted so it is possible to store binary files as secrets aswell.

Services

Services are an abstraction of a set of pods and how to access them. There are various methods of exposing a pod, here are the different types of services:

  • ClusterIP (Internal) - Default service definition
  • NodePort (External) - Exposes the nodes static ip
  • LoadBalancer (External) - Exposes the service through a cloud-providers loadbalancer ip
  • ExternalName (External) - Exposes the service through a cloud-providers loadbalancer ip with a CNAME entry

Persistent Volumes

Persistent volumes, as the name suggests it is used to manage persistent storage volumes. In altinn.studio we use persistent volume claims,
and since we’re using a Azure managaged kubernetes cluster, azure sets up virtual disks in the kubernetes cluster resource group.

Namespaces

Namespaces are intended for use in environments with multiple users spread across multiple teams or project.
Namespaces provide a scope for names.

Node

A node is either a physical machine or a virtual one. They are used as workers for hosting different kubernetes resources.

Cluster

A cluster is a set of virtual machines with various hardware setup.